Unconventional and New Spinning System and Technologies

Unconventional and New Spinning System and Technologies
Value Techy Talk

Yarn is created through the process of spinning which is the process of taking fibres and twisting them. This method holds the fibres together (whether they are continuous or staple filaments) and increases their strength of them to ensure that they can't be easily separated. There are many traditional and contemporary spinning techniques. In this article, I will review all the modern and innovative spinning techniques with the appropriate diagrams.

In the second half of the 20th century, many of the innovations in spinning focused on improving productivity. The thought that drove the majority of these innovations was that when it could be established that the method of the twist-insertion process was separate from the process of forming yarn packages which would allow for larger packages to be made and at greater speed. The technique that brought about the initial and possibly the biggest entrance in spinning machines was the rotor spinning method, also known as open-end spinning.

Modern and New Spinning Technologies:

The latest spinning technologies created since then include rotor spin air-jet spinning, friction spin, vortex spinning core spinning, electrostatic spin and wrap spinning as well as twistless spinning. The yarns that are spun through these processes are diverse and can differ in a variety of aspects. 

Open-end Spinning / Rotor:

Rotor Spinning is also known by the name open-end spin. It is a method of spinning a sliver that has been carded that is fed into one-spiked rollers that spin at high speeds. The rollers break to let the sliver open to allow the fibres to be fed in a single direction via an airstream into an elongated funnel that spins at a rapid rate. The funnel that spins gathers a thin layer of fibres which are twisted when they go through to create the yarn. This process creates a yarn that is five to 10 times faster than ring spinning, however, the structures are more brittle that makes them less popular than the ring-spun type of yarn.

The rotor spin is utilized as an alternative to the spinning of yarns with short staples. A sliver of the draw frame feeds through the opening of a fast-revolving roller that breaks the sliver, then feeds the fibre into a tube that then feeds the fibres one by one into the groove that runs around the outside edge of a revolving, high-speed rotor. The rotor's rotation creates a centrifugal airflow which allows fibres to be pulled from the opening roller and fed into the groove. 

A preformed open-end yarn is then pulled into the groove and the fibres are joined onto the ends of this yarn, and the twist is introduced by the rotor that is rotating. The force of winding (pull) on the packaging is enough to counteract the suction force exerted by the rotor, and the yarn is then delivered to the winding machine, which creates a cone-shaped package. 

The structure of yarns spun by rotor differs from the structure of rings spun. The fibres that are closest to the centre of the yarn exhibit more twists than those that are on the outside of the yarn. One way to tell the yarn has been spun rotor-style is to conduct a traditional twist test. It simply can't be done. Strength and length characteristics are adequate for the majority of uses and evenness is usually higher. The fabric's handle with rotor spun yarn, however, is much more brittle than ring-spun, and the abrasion resistance is lower. 

These two characteristics/design rules limit the final uses for rotor-spun yarns even though the sheer volume of demand has led to spinning rotor yarns accounting for approximately 30% of the market share in textile clothing and textile market which is greater than any other spinning technique developed since the mid-1960s. Recently several strategies for marketing have been employed by fashion retailers to label items as ring-spun however, the significance of this is not recognized by the public except if they are design technologists.

Air Jet / Fasciated Yarn Spinning System:

It is the next innovation of the 1970s/80s that created a huge impact on the market for textiles. The general term is called fasciated, and air-jet is the brand name for the most popular spindle system. The word fascinated is derived from the design of the fibre It is akin to the fasces worn as a badge for office by the praetorian guardsmen in the era of ancient Rome. The fasces consisted of a bundle of axes, held together with leather straps. 

The air jet spin utilizes a false twist that you first learned about in the context of the woollen ring frame. If you turn a strand of fibres with a middle, we receive opposite orientations of the twist along both sides. And if the strand moves forward, we will get zero twists. This is exactly what happens with the air jet/fasciated yarns however, the force of the rapidly-revolving jets causes a handful of fibres that are on the outside of the yarn to escape twist in one direction and thus they get a real twist upon emergence from the jet and consequently, they become wrapped around the centre.

In modern times two air jets are running together, rotating at opposite angles, which is employed to provide more force. However, these fibres made of air jets or fasciated yarns are not as strong and elongated. However, they are suitable for specific fabrics and uses, and their softness is excellent. They are in high demand, but the market is decreasing from an average of 5 per cent. 

Systems for Friction Spin:

The most famous part of this friction-spinning technology can be described as the Dref acronym derived from the initials of the creator Dr Ernst Fehrer. The system uses a rotating carding drum that opens the fibres into single fibres. These fibres get removed from the drum using centrifugal force and pushed into the Nip of two perforated drums which rotate parallel to each other. They are spun through mechanical friction on the surfaces of the drums. They are then joined by the open ends of yarn that are introduced to gather the fibres the same way as when spinning the rotor. It is then wound on the cone.

The primary issue with friction spinning is broken strength being low and similar systems, such as the Platt friction spinner, have failed commercially. To solve this issue an underlying continuous filament is constructed within where the staple fibres are gathered. This restricts the final uses that this kind of yarn can be used however, it is efficient for elasticated hosiery yarns as well as other speciality products. However, the market share is expected to remain low. 

Vortex Spinning Process:

Vortex spinning was first introduced through Murata Machinery Ltd in Japan in 1997. This technique is best described as an improvement that uses air jets to spin yarn which makes use of air jets to spin yarn. The most notable feature that makes Murata Vortex Spinning (VMS) is the capability to create yarn at 400 meters per minute which is nearly 20 times more than frames that spin ring-shaped yarn. Other benefits include low maintenance costs, an automated piecing system, and the removal of the roving frames. The fabric and yarn characteristics are of VMS yarn are said by the company to be similar to the properties of the ring-spun yarn.

The sliver is fed into a four-over-4 (or the four-pair) drafter. When the fibres are pulled out of the rollers in front, they are drawn into the opening that is spiral-shaped of an air jet nozzle. The nozzle produces the air with a swirling current that creates a twist in the fibres. A needle guide within this nozzle regulates the flow of fibres to an open spindle. After the fibres pass by the nozzle they have twisted around on the spindle's hollow surface. The leading edges of the bundle are drawn into a hollow spindle by the fibres from the prior art of the bundle, which are then twisted into a spun yarn. The finished yarn is wrapped around a bundle.

Small Spinning Machine:

It is not a new spinning technique, but rather an effective improvement and development of conventional spinning rings that results in an excellent quality yarn that is an improvement over conventional ring-spun short-staple and cotton yarns. In essence, the front of the drawing roller is perforated to a depth that is approximately 1 cm that draws air this causes the draft yarn to be compressed or drawn into a narrow fibre stream when it rises out of the groove on the front roller, and then to be matched with a twist.

This implies that there are only a few fibres at the edge of the stream, and this results in a substantial reduction in hairiness. This method has made huge progress in this fine yarn structure (i.e. 4--10 TEX). For more coarse counts, such as the common 2/30 Ne or the R40 TEX two (every single yarn having 20 Tex) this is most likely a waste of money addition. The need for this kind of yarn is likely to increase.

Siro-Spinning System:

It was created in the 70s and was intended for Worsted spinning wool. The idea was instead of spinning two separate yarns and then plying them together to form two-fold yarns, two different rovings might be fed in a row into the drafting region of a ring frame with a worsted coating. The fibre strands stay separate when they come out of the groove on the front rollers. The yarns are then twisted. If the resulting yarn is not twisted, the two strands are easily identified and identification of the type of yarn is not difficult. The advantage of Siro-spinning is that hairiness is lessened because the fibres on the surface are more effectively absorbed into the yarn's structure.

Additionally, an intermediate step (twisting/plying) is eliminated. The disadvantages are that the yarn isn't as balanced, and this can show through the yarn, as well as the value of the load and length is not the same as traditional spun yarns. Siro-spun yarns have not been widely used by spinners who are worsted, however, they have been, in a small amount used by spinners who use extremely fine cotton yarns as part of their efforts to lessen hairiness. It is also able to be used in conjunction with the technology of compact spinning.

It should also be mentioned that other non-conventional techniques for spinning yarn were created, especially late in the 20th century. The majority of them have had only a small amount of success, and a few have ceased to exist.

It is highly unlikely that the designer technologist will be required to utilize the yarns created by these techniques, however, he or could use the knowledge offered by this chapter to assist them in their efforts to study the patterns, study, and comprehend new competitors to the market, even though at this point in the century, the latest spinning technology new entrants have not been much present.

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